

43. Equitable Stroke Control 
Equitable Stroke Control (ESC) is the downward adjustment of individual hole scores for handicap purposes in order to make handicaps more representative of a player’s potential ability. ESC sets a maximum number that a player can post on any hole depending on the player’s Course Handicap. ESC is used only when a player’s actual or most likely score exceeds his maximum number based on the table below but is applied to all scores for handicap purposes, including tournament scores. There is no limit to the number of holes on which a player may adjust his score.
A Handicap Index determined from scores to which ESC has not been applied may not be termed a USGA Handicap Index.
EQUITABLE STROKE C0NTROL 
Course Handicap 
Maximum Number
On Any Hole 
9 or less 
Double Bogey* 
10 through 19 
7 
20 through 29 
8

30 through 39 
9 
40 or more 
10 
Example: A player with a Course Handicap of 13 has a maximum number of 7 for any hole regardless of par. A player with a Course Handicap of 42 has a maximum number of 10 for any hole. 
Section 10 USGA HANDICAP FORMULA
A Handicap Index is the USGA’s service mark used to indicate a measurement of a player’s potential ability on a course of standard difficulty. Potential ability is measured by a player’s best scores, and is expressed as a number taken to one decimal place. These scores are identified by calculating the handicap differential for each score. The USGA Handicap Index is calculated by taking 96 percent of the average of the best handicap differentials, and applying Section 103 for golfers with two or more eligible Tournament Scores. 

101. How to Determine Handicap Differentials 
A handicap differential is computed from four elements: adjusted gross score, USGA Course Rating, USGA Slope Rating and 113 (the Slope Rating of a course of standard difficulty). To determine the handicap differential, subtract the USGA Course Rating from the adjusted gross score; multiply the difference by 113; then divide the resulting number by the USGA Slope Rating. Round the final number to the nearest tenth.
Handicap Differential =
(Adjusted Gross Score  USGA Course Rating) x 113 / USGA Slope Rating
a. Plus Handicap Differential
When the adjusted gross score is higher than the USGA Course Rating, the handicap differential is a positive number. Following is an example for determining a differential using an adjusted gross score of 95 made on a course with a USGA Course Rating of 71.5 and a USGA Slope Rating of 125: 
Adjusted Gross Score  USGA Course Rating: 

95  71.5 = 23.5 
Difference x Standard Slope: 

23.5 x 113 = 2655.5 
Result / USGA Slope Rating: 

2655.5 / 125 = 21.24 
Handicap Differential (rounded): 

21.2 

b. Minus Handicap Differential
When the adjusted gross score is lower than the USGA Course Rating, the handicap differential is a negative number. Following is an example for determining a differential using an adjusted gross score of 69 made on a course with a USGA Course Rating of 71.5 and a USGA Slope Rating of 125: 
Adjusted Gross Score  USGA Course Rating: 

69  71.5 = 2.5 
Difference x Standard Slope: 

2.5 x 113 = 282.5 
Result / USGA Slope Rating: 

282.5 / 125 = 2.26 
Handicap Differential (rounded): 

2.3 


102. USGA Handicap Index Formula 
The USGA Handicap Index Formula is based on the best handicap differentials in a player’s scoring record. If a player’s scoring record contains 20 or more scores, the best 10 handicap differentials of the most recent 20 scores are used to calculate the USGA Handicap Index.
The percentage of scores used in a scoring record decreases from the maximum of the best 50 percent as the number of scores in the scoring record decreases.
If the scoring record contains 9 or 10 scores, only the best three scores (30 to 33 percent) in the scoring record will be used. Thus, the accuracy of a player’s Handicap Index is directly proportional to the number of acceptable scores posted.
A USGA Handicap Index shall not be issued to a player who has returned fewer than five acceptable scores. The following procedures illustrate how authorized golf associations and golf clubs calculate a player’s Handicap Index.
The procedure for calculating Handicap Indexes is as follows:
Use the table below to determine the number of handicap differentials to use; 
Number of Acceptable Scores























 etermine handicap differentials;
 verage the handicap differentials being used;
 ultiply the average by .96; *
 elete all numbers after the tenths’ digit. Do not round off to the nearest tenth.
Example 1: Fewer than 20 scores (11 scores available).


Total of lowest 4 handicap differentials: 

104.1 
Average (104.1 / 4): 

26.025 
Multiply average by .96: 

24.984 
Delete digits after tenths: 

24.9 
USGA Handicap Index: 

24.9 

* Bonus for Excellence is the incentive that is built into the USGA Handicap System for players to improve their golf games. It is the term used to describe the small percentage below perfect equity that is used to calculate Handicap Indexes (96%). As his Handicap Index improves (gets lower), the player has a slightly better chance of placing high or winning a handicap event. 
Example 2: Twenty Scores available. The following is a sample scoring record of a player with 20 scores. 
Date 
USGA
Adjusted
Score 
USGA
Course
Rating 
Slope
Rating 
Handicap
Differential 
3/21/97 
90 
70.1 
116 
19.4 
3/12/97 
91 
70.1 
116 
20.4 
2/24/97 
94 
72.3 
123 
19.9 
2/20/97 
*88 
70.1 
116 
17.4 
1/18/97 
89 
70.1 
116 
18.4 
1/17/97 
*90 
72.3 
123 
16.3 
1/16/97 
*91 
72.3 
123 
17.2 
12/12/96 
91 
70.1 
116 
20.4 
12/10/96 
91 
70.1 
116 
20.4 
11/8/96 
86 
68.7 
105 
18.6 
11/4/96 
90 
70.1 
116 
19.4 
11/1/96 
*92 
72.3 
123 
18.1 
10/24/96 
*85 
68.0 
107 
18.0 
10/16/96 
*78 
68.7 
105 
10.0 
10/12/96 
*82 
70.1 
116 
11.6 
10/2/96 
*84 
70.1 
116 
13.5 
9/14/96 
94 
72.3 
123 
19.9 
9/5/96 
93 
72.3 
123 
19.0 
9/4/96 
*89 
72.3 
123 
15.3 
9/1/96 
*88 
70.1 
116 
17.4 
* 10 scores with lowest handicap differentials 

